Jardin May 11, www. Price discounts and allowances 3. Geographical pricing Barter Compensation deal Direct exchange of goods Payment in products and cashBuyback arrangement Offset Payment in form of products manufactured by the supplied Receives payment in cash but agrees to equipment and cash spend some of the money in the products of that country www.
Production output is created in the real process, gains of production are distributed in the income distribution process and these two processes constitute the production process.
The production process and its sub-processes, the real process and income distribution process occur simultaneously, and only the production process is identifiable and measurable by the traditional accounting practices.
The real process and income distribution process can be identified and measured by extra calculation, and this is why they need to be analyzed separately in order to understand the logic of production and its performance. Real process generates the production output from input, and it can be described by means of the production function.
It refers to a series of events in production in which production inputs of different quality and quantity are combined into products of different quality and quantity.
Products can be physical goods, immaterial services and most often combinations of both. The characteristics created into the product by the producer imply surplus value to the consumer, and on the basis of the market price this value is shared by the consumer and the producer in the marketplace.
This is the mechanism through which surplus value originates to the consumer and the producer likewise.
Surplus values to customers cannot be measured from any production data. Instead the surplus value to a producer can be measured.
It can be expressed both in terms of nominal and real values.
The real surplus value to the producer is an outcome of the real process, real income, and measured proportionally it means productivity. Since then it has been a cornerstone in the Finnish management accounting theory.
The magnitude of the change in income distribution is directly proportionate to the change in prices of the output and inputs and to their quantities. Productivity gains are distributed, for example, to customers as lower product sales prices or to staff as higher income pay.
The production process consists of the real process and the income distribution process. A result and a criterion of success of the owner is profitability.
The profitability of production is the share of the real process result the owner has been able to keep to himself in the income distribution process. Factors describing the production process are the components of profitabilityi.
They differ from the factors of the real process in that the components of profitability are given at nominal prices whereas in the real process the factors are at periodically fixed prices.
Monetary process refers to events related to financing the business. Market value process refers to a series of events in which investors determine the market value of the company in the investment markets. Production growth and performance[ edit ] Main article: Economic growth Economic growth is often defined as a production increase of an output of a production process.
It is usually expressed as a growth percentage depicting growth of the real production output. The real output is the real value of products produced in a production process and when we subtract the real input from the real output we get the real income.
The real output and the real income are generated by the real process of production from the real inputs. The real process can be described by means of the production function.
The production function is a graphical or mathematical expression showing the relationship between the inputs used in production and the output achieved. Both graphical and mathematical expressions are presented and demonstrated. The production function is a simple description of the mechanism of income generation in production process.
It consists of two components. These components are a change in production input and a change in productivity. The Value T2 value at time 2 represents the growth in output from Value T1 value at time 1. Each time of measurement has its own graph of the production function for that time the straight lines.
The output measured at time 2 is greater than the output measured at time one for both of the components of growth: The portion of growth caused by the increase in inputs is shown on line 1 and does not change the relation between inputs and outputs.
The portion of growth caused by an increase in productivity is shown on line 2 with a steeper slope. So increased productivity represents greater output per unit of input.
The growth of production output does not reveal anything about the performance of the production process. Because the income from production is generated in the real process, we call it the real income.Chapter 1 MCQ's: Marketing Management 13th edition by "Kotler" Chapter 1: Defining Marketing for the multiple choice questions for Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong.
uploaded by. (Kotler) Chapter uploaded by. Teh Jian Zhi.5/5(3). Sample Final Exam – Marketing Management – Semester, Year. Name _____ Social Security # _____ Please read all questions carefully.
You have three hours to complete this exam so please take your time and double check all your answers once you are finished.
Dear Readers, Welcome to Marketing Interview questions with answers and explanation. These 40 solved Marketing questions will help you prepare for personal interviews and online selection tests during campus placement for freshers and job interviews for professionals. After reading these tricky Marketing questions, you can easily attempt the objective type and multiple choice type questions on. Kotler Chapter 8 MCQ - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Chap 01, multiple choice questions for Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong. Kotler Chapter 14 MCQ. Kotler Chapter 9 MCQ. Kotler Chapter 7 MCQ.5/5(28). Learn chapter 14 marketing management with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of chapter 14 marketing management flashcards on Quizlet.
Chapter Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs GENERAL CONCEPT QUESTIONS Multiple Choice 1. _____ communicates to the market the company’s intended value positioning of its 94%(34).
Multiple choice questions. Try the multiple choice questions below to test your knowledge of this chapter. Once you have completed the test, click on 'Submit Answers for Grading' to get your results.
This activity contains 15 questions. ♦ Developing Marketing Programs: Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs December 23 (Questions - Multiple choice / Essay) Reference for Kotler, P.; Keller, K.
L.: Marketing Management () Chapter p. – Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs. 14 Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs Marketing Management, 13th ed Chapter Questions • How do consumers process and evaluate prices?