The first set of regression models examined the predictive ability of age, gender, religiosity, and length of time in the U. More specifically, age, gender, religiosity, and length of time in the U. Both models came out statistically significant.
Abstract Among a predominately Mexican and Mexican American sample of preadolescents, religiosity protected against lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and recent alcohol and cigarette use when religious affiliation was controlled.
When religiosity was controlled, however, adolescents with no religious affiliation and adolescents who were religiously affiliated reported similar substance use outcomes.
Interaction effects demonstrated that the protective effect of greater religiosity operated more strongly in some religions than in others for selected outcomes.
Overall, the impact of religiosity on reported drug use did not differ significantly for more and less acculturated Latino youth.
Initiation into substance use at this age is of special concern given that early drug use places an individual at greater risk for later use M. Yet adolescence is also a period of attachment transitions and religious changes Granquist, Compared with adults, adolescents are more likely to be searching for purpose and identity L.
In this search, religion may be a source for information or answers, providing guidelines for behavior and opportunities for prosocial interaction. Yet further research is needed to understand how religion affects adolescents as they experience multiple developmental and social changes.
Although religiosity and religious affiliation have each been associated with youth substance use outcomes, still relatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena and about how this relationship may influence adolescent substance use.
Furthermore, little is known about how the influences of religion and acculturation combine in the life of Latino adolescents in the Southwest, many of whom come from immigrant families.
This article focuses on the protective effects of religion, exploring the influence of religiosity within certain religious affiliations and across levels of acculturation, using a predominately Mexican and Mexican American sample of adolescents.
The two hypotheses of the study are that religiosity and religious affiliation will have a protective effect on the drug use behaviors and norms of preadolescents in the Southwest and that acculturation will mediate the effect of religion. The literature operationalizes religiosity in several ways.
Some researchers have explored behavioral and attitudinal domains of religiosity simultaneously. For instance, Kutter and McDermott conceptualized religiosity in three dimensions: Others have distinguished between private and public religious behavior: Religiosity has been viewed, for the most part, as an individual-level variable.
However, because adolescents are under the authority of their parents, their religious involvement may be dictated by their parents. As Hodge et al. Many youths may be required, or at least strongly encouraged, to attend religious services as part of a family practice.
For the purposes of this article, religiosity is operationalized in terms of religious involvement. This belief can provide them with a sense of security and stability. In a study of U. Religiosity has also been associated with positive drug-related outcomes.
It can protect adolescents against substance use in a number of ways. Some religions explicitly prohibit substance use.
Studies have shown that adults and adolescents who believe in the importance of religion are less likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs Free, ; National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, One national study found that among adolescents for whom religion was important, 9.
Youth who are less involved in religious activities may be more at risk. Substance users, for example, have been found to have lower church attendance and less participation in religious activities Oetting et al.
Religiosity may also be associated with resilience, the ability to recover from adverse life events, such as substance addiction. Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Religiosity Research focusing on Latinos has generally associated religiosity with positive outcomes, and this is largely due to the strength of religion as a force in Latino cultures.
A study of predominately Latino adolescents found, for instance, that spirituality protected against marijuana and hard drug use Hodge et al.
Another study of Latino eighth graders found that attendance at religious services was inversely related to drug use Wallace, In their summary of research, De La Rosa and White described several studies that indicate that religiosity does not always inhibit substance use: These findings indicate that additional research is needed to clarify whether, when, and how religiosity operates as a protective factor for Latino youth in general and for Mexicans and Mexican Americans in particular.
Other studies have suggested that immigration and acculturation status may also mediate the protective effect of religiosity. Immigrant children have to cope not only with the identity confusion typically associated with adolescence but also with the stress associated with acculturation Birman, ; Hodge et al.
Furthermore, they may experience mainstream oppression and feelings of rejection that contribute to substance use Hodge et al. This liberalization may be compounded by a concomitant decrease in religiosity as a result of acculturation.
In their study of drug use by Latinos, African Americans, non-Latino Whites, and non-American Blacks during early and middle adolescence, Vega and Gil concluded that native-born and acculturated youth were less religious and more susceptible to drug use.
Acculturation, therefore, may undercut the benefits of religiosity. Religious Affiliation as a Protective Factor Religious affiliation is defined as identification with a particular religion.
Like religiosity, religious affiliation has been shown to have a relationship with substance use.2 Religious beliefs and practices are common in the United States, and are often utilized in the treatment of and recovery from alcohol and drug abuse (Calhoun, ; Brown et al., ). Historically, religion has played an instrumental role in the diverse narratives of the black Diaspora in the United States.
It is important to account for its potential protective effects for black youth. Congress should mandate a census question on religious practice.
The census for the year ought to ask about frequency of attendance at church or synagogue.
It violates nobody's freedom of religion for Congress to know the level and intensity of religious worship in the United States. Sociology - Ch.
Religion & Society.
Among youth, Latinos are generally more religious than non-Latino Whites or African Americans, and their religious involvement has been found to deter drug use (De La Rosa & White, ). A study of predominately Latino adolescents found, for instance, that spirituality protected against marijuana and hard drug use (Hodge et al., ). Historically, religion has played an instrumental role in the diverse narratives of the black Diaspora in the United States. It is important to account for its potential protective effects for black youth. Congress should mandate a census question on religious practice. The census for the year ought to ask about frequency of attendance at church or synagogue. It violates nobody's freedom of religion for Congress to know the level and intensity of religious worship in the United States.
STUDY. PLAY. Religion: Religion in the United States - Unusually religious—most U.S. adults profess an affiliation - Most religiously diverse country in the world - Youth and young adults less likely to claim affiliation than older adults.
Family Religious Involvement and the Quality of Parental Relationships for the causal effects of religion. It might be that religion itself the transition from school to work of youth living in the United States, ages 12 through 16 as of December 31, attendance or religious identity), both within the United States and across countries of the world.
This Research Brief uses data from international and U.S. surveys to describe current patterns of religiosity and spirituality among youth and young adults around the .