Editor is Katy Evans-Bush, with a quite eclectic but not always demanding mixture, eg in latest issue Michael Horovitz on Blake yes, he likes himthree literaryish blokes on menswear, and poems by Carrie Etter, Alistair Noon, Ira Lightman, Tom Bell. How2 exploring non-traditional directions in poetry and scholarship by womenis full of excellent material, including in the current issue Strictly Speaking on Caroline Bergvallcurated and co-ordinated by Sophie Robinson, and Reading Carla Harrymancurated and co-ordinated by Laura Hinton, plus much else, including poems by Jessica Wilkinson, Emily Critchley and Karen Sandhu. Susana Gardner and Dusie Books".
Early precedents[ edit ] Compositions that could be considered a precedent for aleatory composition date back to at least the late 15th century, with aleatory writing a book genre of the catholicon, exemplified by the Missa cuiusvis toni of Johannes Ockeghem.
One such dice game is attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
These games consisted of a sequence of musical measuresfor which each measure had several possible versions and a procedure for selecting the precise sequence based on the throwing of a number of dice Boehmer9— The French artist Marcel Duchamp composed two pieces between and based on chance operations.
Two of his contemporaries, Francis Picabia and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignesalso experimented with chance composition,[ clarification needed ] these works being performed at a Festival Dada staged at the Salle Gaveau concert hall, Paris, on 26 May Cage later asked Duchamp: Modern usage[ edit ] The earliest significant use of aleatory features is found in many of the compositions of American Charles Ives in the early 20th century.
Cowell also used specially devised notations to introduce variability into the performance of a work, sometimes instructing the performers to improvise a short passage or play ad libitum Griffiths In Europe, following the introduction of the expression "aleatory music" by Meyer-Eppler, the French composer Pierre Boulez was largely responsible for popularizing the term Boulez Types of indeterminate music[ edit ] Main article: From this point of view, indeterminate or chance music can be divided into three groups: The first group includes scores in which the chance element is involved only in the process of composition, so that every parameter is fixed before their performance.
Because this work is absolutely fixed from performance to performance, Cage regarded it as an entirely determinate work made using chance procedures Pritchett At the macroscopic level, the sections are designed and controlled by the composer while the single components of sound are controlled by mathematical theories Joe and Song Notated events are provided by the composer, but their arrangement is left to the determination of the performer.
The greatest degree of indeterminacy is reached by the third type of indeterminate music, where traditional musical notation is replaced by visual or verbal signs suggesting how a work can be performed, for example in graphic score pieces.
The performer chooses how to read them. Time units are represented by the squares viewed horizontally, while relative pitch levels of high, middle, and low are indicated by three vertical squares in each row.
The performer determines what particular pitches and rhythms to play Joe and Song Open form music[ edit ] See also: Open form Open form is a term sometimes used for mobile or polyvalent musical formswhere the order of movements or sections is indeterminate or left up to the performer.
Roman Haubenstock-Ramati composed a series of influential "mobiles" such as Interpolation In this sense, a "mobile form" can be either "open" or "closed".
Stochastic music Stochastic processes may be used in music to compose a fixed piece or may be produced in performance.
Stochastic music was pioneered by Xenakis, who coined the term stochastic music.Examples of extensive aleatoric writing can be found in small passages from John Williams' score for the film Images. Other film composers using this technique are Mark Snow (X-Files: Fight the Future), John Corigliano, and others (Karlin and Wright , –36).
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